Kalmegh is anti-infective (sannipata-jvarahara, krimipranut, asranut). It promotes resolution of inflammation (shotha-pranut) and wound healing (vrana-pranut). It is cooling (sheetal) and thus used to alleviate burning (daha) and inflammation (shopha) in skin diseases (kushtha) resulting from aggravated pitta and rakta (as seen in Herpes zoster). Andrographolide, neoandrographolide and 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, ent-labdene diterpenes isolated from Andrographis paniculata showed virucidal activity against herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). None of these compounds exhibited significant cytotoxicity at virucidal concentrations.
Bhallatak is anti-infective (jvara-hara, krimi-nashana) and immuno-modulator (rasayana). It is used for the management of infection (jvara), inflammation (vrana, shotha), and skin disorders (kushtha). Extract of nut preparation of Semecarpus anacardium is effective against a variety of diseases like arthritis, tumors, and infections. An extract of S. anacardium at a dose of 150 mg/kg significantly reduced the lysosomal enzyme activity in arthritic animals and displayed significant inhibition of tumor cells with IC50 of 1.6 mg/ml. The active principle component from Semecarpus anacardium showed high antiviral activity.
Dugdhika is anti-infective (krimi-pranut) and anti-toxic (vishaghna). It is used internally, as well as, externally for the management of various skin disorders (kushtha). In an experimental study, the EtOAc extract and 3OG46HG of Euphorbia thymifolia Linnea have been shown to exhibit anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 activity in vitro. In the present study, the mode of action of these two compounds in suppressing HSV-2 multiplication was investigated. The results demonstrated that the EtOAc extract and 3OG46HG affected virus infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. The EtOAc extract significantly reduced virus infectivity at a concentration of 4.0 µg/mL, whereas 3OG46HG obviously diminished virus infectivity at concentration of a 0.5 µg/mL. The virucidal ability of the EtOAc extract was affected by the incubation period, but not by the incubation temperature. In the case of the action of 3OG46HG against HSV-2, the effects of incubation time and temperature were negligible. In summary, the EtOAc extract and 3OG46HG of E. thymifolia are concluded to inhibit HSV-2 multiplication by reducing virus infectivity.