Tagar is nootropic (medhya, mastishka-shamaka), anticonvulsant (akshepa-hara), anti-spasmodic (akshepa-hara), analgesic (vedena-sthapana). It is used for the management of various neurological and psychiatric disorders like anxiety neurosis (chinta, manodvega), convulsive disorders (apasmara), spasmodic pain (udara-shula) etc. Valeriana wallichii (Valerianaceae) is an indigenous medicinal and aromatic plant of Himalayan region and that is widely exploited for its roots and rhizomes which contain valepotriates and valerinic acids (with putative pharmacological activities). It is used as ethno-medicine for the treatment of habitual constipation, insomnia, epilepsy, neurosis, anxiety, diuretic, hepatoprotective, analgesic and cytotoxic, antispasmodic, anticonvulsant, nematicidal, anti-inflammatory, etc. Several phytoconstituents have been isolated from different parts of the plant belonging to the category volatile oils, iridoids, alkaloids and flavonoids. In another study, it demonstrated antidepressant effect.
Jatiphal is analgesic (shula-nut), anti-inflammatory (vrana-hara), anti-rheumatic (ama-vata-hara), and modulates neuro-endocrine mechanisms (anil-apaham). It showed sedative and analgesic effects, with no harmful effects on blood pressure and ECG. With the current information, it is evident that M. fragrans has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-convulsant, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities.
Hyoscyamus niger (Figures 16 and 17) belongs to the family Solanaceae and thrives in many Mediterranean countries including Greece, and generally in areas of Europe and Asia where there is a temperate climate. It has been introduced even in North America. It is also known as “henbane.” It is a biennial herb that reaches a height of 80 cm and grows in rocky, arid areas and along roads. It has oval leaves, and the color of its flowers varies from yellow to dull green with purple veins. The fruit contains 200 seeds. The roots, leaves, fruits, and seeds of the plant contain atropine, scopolamine, and hyoscine. In ancient times, the plant used to treat pain and insomnia and as a local anesthetic.
Rakta-marich is a potent metabolic stimulant. Ayurveda texts describe it as ushna (metabolic stimulant), katu (pungent stimulant), tikshna (stimulant), ruksha (anti- dyslipidemic), and advocate its use in agnimandya (low BMR, as in hypothyroidism), hridroga (heart diseases), medoroga (obesity), ama-dosha (metabolic / immunologic disorders), vata-roga (neuro- endocrine disorders), kapha-rogas (immunological diseases)