The galls of Quercus infectoria have also been pharmacologically documented to possess astringent, antidiabetic, antitremorine, local anaesthetic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal and anti-inflammatory activities. The main constituents found in the galls of Quercus infectoria are tannin (50-70%) and small amount of free gallic acid and ellagic acid.
Ficus racemosa Linn. (Family; Moraceae) popularly known as the cluster fig tree or Gular, is famous medicinal plant in India, which is used in traditional system of medicine for a long time, for the treatment of various disorders like diabetes, liver disorders, diarrhoea, inflammatory conditions, haemorrhoids, respiratory and urinary diseases. This herb is mentioned in all ancient scriptures of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homeopathy. Various plant parts such as bark, root, leaf, fruits and latex are used as astringent, carminative, vermifuge and anti-dysentery. It is a good remedy for excessive appetite. The extract of fruit is used in diabetes, leucoderma, refrigerant, antiasthmatic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiulcer and menorrhagia. It is used locally to relieve inflammation of skin wounds, lymphadenitis, in sprains and fibrositis. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed study in Pharmacogonstical, phytochemical & Pharmacological properties.
Malvaceae, commonly known as Bala, is an Ayurvedic medicine that is used to treat bronchial asthma, cold and flu, chills, lack of perspiration, head ache, nasal congestion, aching joints and bones, cough and wheezing, and edema. The root infusion is given in nervous and urinary diseases and also in disorders of the blood and bile. Sida cordifolia has been reported to posess analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic activities as well as hepatoprotective activity. Traditionally the plant Sida cordifolia (linn) syn has been used as CNS depressant, fat lose, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatoprotectiv. Presence of ephedrine has highlighted the utility of this plant .various ayurvadic preparation of this plant used in asthma diseases, fat lose and increase energy, Oil preparation is also cure pain, swelling disorder, and Gritha cures Heart diseases. This plant has great potential to develop the Ayurvedic, modern medicine and athletic supplements by pharmaceutical industries.
Shatavari is one of the principal medicinal herbs in ayurveda, possessing several actions that make it especially useful in the management of many female reproductive disorders. Ayurveda texts describe it as sheetal (lowers metabolic activity), rasayani (tonic, esp. for females), snigdha (anabolic), stanya (galactagogue), vrishya (reinforces fertility), guru (anabolic), pushtida (promotes nourishment, growth and development of the tissues).
Research on fenugreek in recent years has identified a number of health benefits and physiological attributes in both experimental animals as well as clinical trials in humans. Its known medicinal properties such as carminative, gastric stimulant, antidiabetic and galactogogue (lactation-inducer) effects, newer research has identified hypocholesterolemic, antilipidemia, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antiulcer, antilithigenic, anticarcinogenic and other miscellaneous medicinal effects of fenugreek. Although most of these studies have used whole seed powder or different forms of extracts, some have identified active constituents from seeds and attributed them medicinal values for different indications.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) belonging to the family Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb. It is widely distributed in tropical Asia. In India, it is cultivated mainly in Kerala, Andhia Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Maharashtra. It is one of the most common spices, which is in use since centuries for its versatile medicinal actions like antiemetic, stomachic, expectorant, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac etc in traditional system of medicine (Unani, Ayurveda, and Chinese medicine). It is useful for the treatment of various gastrointestinal, pulmonary, cardiovascular and sexual disorders. The phytochemical study of ginger showed the presence of many volatile oils and oleo-resins like gingerol, zinger one, zingiberol etc. Numerous experimental and clinical trials have proven ginger for its range of therapeutic activities such as antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiemetic, hypolipidaemic, hepatoprotective etc properties. The present article aims to explore traditional Unani and pharmacological activities of this herb reported till date.
The fruits of Piper longum Linn. are very well-known medicine for diseases of the respiratory tract, viz. cough, bronchitis, asthma, etc.; as counter-irritant, analgesic when applied locally for muscular pains and inflammation and as general tonic and hematinic. They are carminative and known to enhance the bioavailability of food and drugs. In this paper recently developed micropropagation method by tissue culture and molecular basis of genotypic differentiation between the male and female plants, using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique and development of sex associated DNA markers have been discussed along with some medicinal and pharmacological properties of the spice.
The edible portion of the Prunus amygdalus is it nuts, which are commonly known as almonds or badam, and it is a popular, nutritious food. The almond, which is known as the king of nuts, is a highly nutritious food. Almonds are rich in healthy fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins. In addition to its nutritional values, it has some medicinal values that may be helpful for treating certain diseases and health problems. The almond is an effective health building food, both for the body and the mind; it is also a valuable food remedy for several common ailments. The nuts of Prunus amygdalus are found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-stress, anti-oxidant, immunostimulant, lipid lowering, and laxative. The almond is highly beneficial in preserving the vitality of the brain, strengthening the muscles and prolonging life. Almonds are a useful food remedy for anaemia, as they contain copper, iron and vitamins.
Jyotishmati is nootropic (medhya, mastishka-balya, buddhi-prada) and memory enhancing (smriti-prada). It is used for the management of various neurological and psychiatric disorders esp. mental depression (mano-avasada, mastishka-daurbalya). Jyotishmati has been widely used in the indigenous medicinal systems to treat brain related disorders. In an experimental study, it showed a decrease in AChE activity from hypothalamus, frontal cortex and hippocampus in the treated rats leading to increased cholinergic activity in the brain. Jyotishmati is also known as Celastrus paniculatus.
Devadaru is one of the major herbs used by our Acharyasfor antiallergic andantimicrobial purposes. The plant can be used as ananticonvulsant , antiulcer, carminative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial agent. Devadaru can cure diseases like Filariasis, Cough, Asthma, Piles, Anaemia, Fever, Worm infestations, Allergies. The ethanolic extract of the plant contains 3, 4-bis furan-2 and have excellent anticonvulsant activities. The water soluble extract of pine needles of Cedar have antibacterial properties.
The beneficial health effects of CZ identified were; a) anti-microbial and anti-parasitic activity, b) lowering of blood glucose, blood pressure and serum cholesterol, c) anti-oxidant and free-radical scavenging properties, d) inhibition of tau aggregation and filament formation (hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease), e) inhibitory effects on osteoclastogenesis, f) anti-secretagogue and anti-gastric ulcer effects, g) anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, h) wound healing properties and i) hepato-protective effects. The studies reported minimal toxic and adverse effects.
Syzygium aromaticum is a tree in the family Myrtaceae, native to Indonesia with the aromatic flower buds known as cloves, and commonly used as a spice. The plant is commercially harvested in Indonesia, as well as in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Comoro Islands, Madagascar, Seychelles, and Tanzania. It has anticancer, antidiabetic antiinflammatory, antinociceptive, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antioxidant, and antithrombotic properties, as well as other biological activities and constituents of this plant. Due to its numerous pharmacological activities, S. aromaticum can be considered as a potential drug candidate for many ailments.
Jatiphal is analgesic (shula-nut), anti-inflammatory (vrana-hara), anti-rheumatic (ama-vata-hara), and modulates neuro-endocrine mechanisms (anil-apaham). It showed sedative and analgesic effects, with no harmful effects on blood pressure and ECG. With the current information, it is evident that M. fragrans has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-convulsant, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities. Content
Sesamum indicum L., commonly known internationally as sesame, is one of the oldest oilseed crops. Worldwide, it is used for its nutritional, medicinal, and industrial purposes. Sesame were demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antileishmanial, gastroprotective, larvicidal, and vasorelaxant activities, among others.