Gandhapura oil is analgesic (vedana-hara), anti-inflammatory (shotha-hara).
Saral-srava oil is an analgesic (vatapaha).
Tailaparna oil is an analgesic (vedanahara).
Karpura oil is a rubefacient (lekhana).
Yavanika oil is an analgesic (shula- hrit), rubefacient (tikshna, ushna).
Podinaka oil is a rubefacient (ushna), muscle relaxant (jadya-nishudini).
Darusita oil is an analgesic (vatapaha).
Devadaru oil is a rubefacient (ushna), anti-inflammatory (shotha-hara).
Marich oil is a rubefacient (dahini).
Sesamum indicum L., commonly known internationally as sesame, is one of the oldest oilseed crops. Worldwide, it is used for its nutritional, medicinal, and industrial purposes. Sesame were demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antileishmanial, gastroprotective, larvicidal, and vasorelaxant activities, among others.
Shallaki is an anti-inflammatory drug (shotha-hara, vrana-hari) that acts by inhibiting substances that produce inflammation at the tissue damage site like cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6), leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase, topoisomerase I, topoisomerase II alpha, NF). In another study, shallaki significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in rats and shows analgesic activity, as determined by acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method. It showed prompt anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity due to the inhibition of 5- lipoxygenase enzyme.
Nirgundi is analgesic (shula-hanti), anti-inflammatory (shotha-hara), anti-rheumatic (ama- maruta-hanti).
Erandmula is analgesic (shula-vinashan), anti-rheumatic (ama-maruta-nashana), muscle relaxant (vata-hara) and eliminates inflammatory edema (shotha-hara). The results of an experimental study indicate that the extract of its root possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammatory models in rats. The observed pharmacological activity may be due to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins present in the plant extract with various biological activities.
Shunthi is rubefacient (ushna / agneya), analgesic (shula-hara), anti-inflammatory (shotha-hara), anti-rheumatic (ama-vataghni).