Shallaki is an anti-inflammatory drug (shotha-hara, vrana-hari) that acts by inhibiting substances that produce inflammation at the tissue damage site like cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6), leukotriene biosynthesis, 5-lipoxygenase, topoisomerase I, topoisomerase II alpha, NF). In another study, shallaki significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in rats and shows analgesic activity, as determined by acetic acid induced writhing response, formalin induced pain, hot plate and tail flick method. It showed prompt anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity due to the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. Shallaki is also known as Boswellia serrata.
Panchangula is analgesic (shula-vinashan), anti-rheumatic (ama-maruta-nashana), muscle relaxant (vata-hara) and eliminates inflammatory edema (shotha-hara). The results of an experimental study indicate that the extract of its root possess significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammatory models in rats. The observed pharmacological activity may be due to the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins present in the plant extract with various biological activites. Panchangula is also known as Ricinus communis.
Jatiphal is analgesic (shula-nut), anti-inflammatory (vrana-hara), anti-rheumatic (ama-vata-hara), and modulates neuro-endocrine mechanisms (anil-apaham). With the current information, it is evident that M. fragrans has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Jatiphal is also known as Myristica fragrans.